By centralizing all DSP functions into BBU, downstream RF signals are transmitted as analogue signals, where multiple bands of multiple services can be multiplexed in the frequency domain by using band mapping and CA techniques [21]. Mass Media refers to all forms of media that are open to and accessible by the public. However, they still require high-speed DA/AD (digital-to-analogue/analogue-to-digital) converters at BSs, which will reduce the network scalability and tremendously increase the cost. As the cell size gets reduced and the number increases, it will be too expensive to build, upgrade and operate the network, as each cell needs its own BS at the cell site. After photo-detection, the MMW signal is transmitted by the antenna array with the desired beam form. The benefits of exploiting MMW for fronthaul transmissions include high capability of wireless data transmission, simple deployment and adaptive environmental suitability, as MMW bands provide multi-gigahertz available bandwidth without the burden of distant cable wiring. Combined with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), traditional CAP and SCM techniques are more straightforward and can achieve spectral efficiencies comparable with that of OFDM. Mobile fronthaul is the physical link between the CO and RRHs/RAUs in a centralized RAN. This has also brought about a change in the dynamics of economy as distribution and cost structure is not the same in traditional media. From another aspect, each BBU belongs to the cloud to maximize its utilization. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 1. Although local wireless networks have potential for traffic handover, users are simply served by independent radio access networks (RANs) and disconnected RATs. Furthermore, advanced technologies such as coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmissions and multi-point CA rely heavily on fronthaul characteristics, which introduce stringent synchronization and system stability requirements on mobile fronthaul designs [20]. So have similar digital signal processing (DSP)-based modulation formats such as generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM), universal filtered multi-carrier (UFMC) and filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) for high spectral efficiency. Historically, the transition to new mobile technologies has resulted in the need for a fourfold to fivefold increase in backhaul capacity. In this grand unified scheme, CA among various bands is flexible and scalable, handover between various cells is smooth, and coordination of user data throughput at cell edges is seamless. Dr.Ashok Kumar,Assistant Professor, Institute of Mass Communication & MediaTechnology, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra Contact : akkumar@kuk.ac.in, lectashok@gmail.com Convergence & Multi Media : Changing trends in Indian Media 2. Meaning of convergence Convergence comes from the prefix con-, meaning together, and the verb verge, which … Mobile PhonesPrintersd. …, Questions1. Moreover, with the interactive World Wide Web, audiences are able to download and share music, video, photo via social networking and become media produce. Presentation about how media convergence influences media organizations and media work. Figure 2. Enter your email address below and we will send you the reset instructions. Real-time dual-band wireless videos in millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber system, Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks, OFDM for next-generation optical access networks, 11×5×9.3 Gb/s WDM-CAP-PON based on optical single-side band multi-level multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation with direct detection, Experimental demonstration of a 10 Gb/s subcarrier multiplexed WDM PON, Enhanced intercell interference coordination challenges in heterogeneous networks, Coordinated multipoint: concepts, performance, and field trial results, Radio-over-fiber access architecture for integrated broadband wireless services, Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators. Moreover, in both CPRI and OBSAI, their digital interfaces, causing unavoidable delay and jitter, become unfriendly to high-speed services requiring precise synchronization. RoF can support both digital RoF and analogue RoF, but analogue RoF will benefit more in terms of convergence and centralization. The Media Convergence research theme normally refers to entire production, distribution, and use process of future digital media services from contents production to service delivery through … The centralized BBU and distributed remote radio heads (RRHs) are connected by digital fibre-optic links via standardized digital RF interfaces, such as common public radio interface (CPRI) and open base station architecture initiative (OBSAI) [8,9]. Still, media convergence may stifle the quality of the content and allow for a possible media monopoly when a select few media companies control most of the media. There's so much customer data coming in that we even coined a whole industry, Big Data, to talk about it! The advert of ICTs led to the innovation of technological convergence. Figure 3 illustrates the physical resource-sharing hierarchy in centralized RANs where multiple operators and/or multiple services share the same system that includes the CO composed of high-performance BBUs and transceivers, high-bandwidth low-latency fibre links and distributed RAUs. The convergence of fibre-optic and radio access networks will ultimately benefit future mobile users in a ‘no-more-cells’ and ‘no-more-standards’ environment to attain highly rich and reliable experience beyond the capacity crunch. Though midhaul and fronthaul have similar roles, fronthaul has higher convergence, especially in a fully centralized architecture. The interference between cells that limits the system capacity can hardly be managed by isolated BSs. In a user’s view of convergence, ‘no more cells’ frames the mobility and ‘no more standards’ frames the experience. As a transient structure between backhaul and fronthaul, mobile midhaul is the link between a macro-BBU and its extending RAUs, as shown in figure 4. All-band coverage and different service tiers. Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: it will work! In the architecture of centralized RANs based on fibre–wireless convergence, all BS functions and most of the RF functions are shifted from cell sites to the BBU pool at the central office (CO). Once a country which had fifty major media companies in 1983, America now, has only nine important multinational media conglomerates, some of which include Walt Disney, Time Warner, Comcast, News Corp., CBS and Viacom. Since MMW has small wavelength, massive MIMO technology with beam forming is promising for high-performance radio access. Convergence lead the media is more interactive and audience participation is encouraged. SlideShare Explore Search You. Figure 5. Moreover, peripheral resources such as air conditioning for BSs will become intolerable in terms of power consumption and installation. The reconfiguration manipulated by the upper layers maintains the desired connections between BBUs and RAUs. G.-K.C. In addition, greater audience engagement can help to enhance the way people experience the media. Evolution from current RAN to future ubiquitous coverage. Compared with CPRI, the spectral efficiency can be improved by up to 60 times and no AD/DA is required at the RAU. Moreover, a heterogeneous network enables the seamless integration of high-frequency small cells with existing cells to support high-speed, low-latency services. Media convergence in the digital era means the changes that are taking place with older forms of media and media companies. ) Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 1 rate and demands! 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